The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)provides that all Parties must formulate and implement national or regional programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change (Art. 4.1.b). It lists specific domains in particular need of adaptation, namely coastal zones, water resources, agriculture, and areas affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods. Article 4.8 complements this list with e.g. small island countries, countries with forest areas liable to forest decay, countries prone to natural disasters, and countries with fragile ecosystems, including mountain ecosystems.The croplands, pastures and forests that occupy 60 percent of the Earthandrsquos surface are progressively being exposed to threats from increased climatic variability and,in the longer run, to climate change. Abnormal changes in air temperature and rainfall and resulting increases in frequency and intensity of drought and flood events have long-term implications for the viability of these cosystems. As climatic patterns change, so also do the spatial distribution of agroecological zones, habitats, distribution patterns of plant diseases and pests, fish populations and ocean circulation patterns which can have significant impacts on agriculture and food production.